differences between Ltd and Pvt Ltd companies

Differences between Ltd and Pvt Ltd Companies in India

Explore the key differences between Ltd and Pvt Ltd companies in India in this detailed article.

Here’s a comprehensive guide on the differences between Ltd. and Pvt. Ltd. companies in India.

Understanding the Difference Between Limited (Ltd) and Private Limited (Pvt Ltd) Companies

Legal Framework

In India, both Limited (Ltd.) and Private Limited (Pvt. Ltd.) companies are governed by the Companies Act, 2013. The primary distinction lies in their legal structure and the level of public involvement.

Ownership and Shareholding

A Pvt. Ltd. company restricts the right to transfer its shares and limits the number of shareholders to 200. In contrast, an Ltd. company, also known as a public limited company, can have an unlimited number of shareholders and its shares can be freely traded on a stock exchange.

Minimum Share Capital

The requirement for minimum paid-up capital has been removed under the Companies Act, 2013. However, it’s important to note that Pvt. Ltd. companies generally have lower capital requirements compared to public limited companies.

Board of Directors

A Pvt. Ltd. company requires a minimum of two directors, while an Ltd. company needs at least three directors. Additionally, at least one director in both types of companies must be an Indian resident.

Public Disclosure

Public limited companies are subject to greater transparency, requiring them to publish their financial statements and disclose more detailed information to the public. Private limited companies have comparatively fewer disclosure obligations.

Raising Capital

Public limited companies can raise capital by issuing shares or debentures to the public. Private limited companies, on the other hand, can only raise funds from their members, directors, or private investors.


  • Reliance Industries Limited (RIL): A prominent example of a public limited company in India, known for its diverse businesses and large shareholder base.
  • Infosys Technologies Private Limited: A leading IT company that started as a private limited company before going public.

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In conclusion, understanding the difference between Ltd. and Pvt. Ltd. companies is crucial for entrepreneurs and business owners in India. While both have their advantages, the choice depends on your business needs, scale of operations, and future growth plans.

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